Poisonous Mushrooms

Not all mushrooms are edible. If you believe that you may have indications of mushrooms poisoning, go to your nearest hospital straightaway with a fragment of the possible culprit. The number of poisonous mushrooms may seem endless, so here are three of the most poisonous groups of species you need to look out for:

– Responsible for 90% of all mushrooms-related deaths in United States
– Some mushrooms that originate from this genus are comestible; however, amateur mushroom hunters should keep their distance when considering them for consumption.
– Toxin present in these mushrooms is called alpha-Amanitin
– This genus has the three most fatal mushrooms:

Death cap (A. phalloides)
– Mistaken for caesar’s mushroom (A. caesarea) or straw mushroom (V. volvacea)
– Accountable for most of the mushroom poisoning in the world
– Found on roots of trees (Europe, but able to acclimate to new land very well)

After consumption:
* 10-16 hours: no symptoms
* Then diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps
* Symptoms will subside
* 3-4 days: failure of kidney or liver
* 5-10 days: death.

Destroying angels (A. virosa and A. bisporigera)
– Found in wooded areas, yards, fields, trees, or bushes
– Mistaken for edible meadow mushroom (A. campestris), button mushroom (A. bisporus), or horse mushroom (A. arvensis).

After consumption:
* 6-24 hours: diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pains, and urinating with blood
* 12-48 hours: symptoms will dwindle
* 72 hours:
* Kidney and liver starts shutting down with other organs
* Seizures → coma → death

Fool’s mushroom (A. verna)
– Found in woody areas around Europe
– Mistaken for stubble rosegill (V. speciosa)

After consumption:
* 6-24 hours: slight discomfort followed by violent stomach pains and diarrhea
* 72 hours: failure of liver and kidney
* Death can be prevented through organ transplants

False Morels
– Posses extraordinary similarity to true morels – genus Morchella
– Edible if cooked properly; however, sometimes cooking may not eradicate all the toxins, which can lead to mutilation of the liver in the long run.
– Genera from this category of poisonous mushrooms include the following:

– Found on the soil or decaying wood
– Famous species: G. esculenta
– Some are fatal when ingested uncooked because of its component, Gyromitrin (both a toxin and carcinogen)

After consumption:
* Hemolysis (bursting of erythrocytes with freeing hemoglobin) which leads to kidney failure
* Convulsions may also occur

– Found in North America (mainly in the west coast) and Europe
– Otherwise known as elfin saddles
– Some are edible and some aren’t
– Usually causes stomach abdominal disturbances when consumed uncooked.

– Found under moist areas of poplar trees in North America
– V. bohemica and V. conica were once believed to be edible, but it has been recently found that they are indeed poisonous and should just be evaded.
– After consumption, symptoms range from abdominal pains to loss of muscle control

Little Brown Mushrooms
– Ubiquitous
– Saprotrophs
– Galerina
– Contains the deadliest species of all the LBMs
– Most notable: autumn skullcap (G. marginata)
– Contains amatoxins

After consumption:
* 6-9 hours: throwing up, stomach pains, and diarrhea
* 9 hours – 7 hours: failure of kidney, failure of liver, coma, or death
* Found in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia
* Mistaken for edible honey mushroom (A. mellea), edible sheathed woodtuft (K. mutabilis), enokitake (F. velutipes), and a psychedelic mushroom called golden tops (P. cubensis).